Iranian hackers, backed up by the government, have targeted Western universities, the United States and Australia in recent months, Dutch broadcaster NOS reported on Friday.
It is unclear whether the attempts to break into computer systems were successful.
The hackers were attempting to steal academic literature and course material to use in Iranian schools, the NOS said.
Diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and Iran have been strained since the Dutch accused Tehran of plotting two political killings in the country that triggered new European Union sanctions against Tehran last year.
Tehran has denied involvement in the shooting of the Iranian dissidents in the Netherlands.